Stephen Hawking believed that an asteroid impact posed the greatest threat to life on Earth. Thanks to Kiwico for sponsoring this video. At https://kiwico.com/veritasium50 you will receive a 50% discount on your first month of a box
For more potential disasters at the end of the world, visit Domain of Science: https://ve42.co/DoS
Special thanks to:
Prof. Dave Jewitt of UCLA for Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences
Prof. Mark Boslough from Sandia National Labs
Scott Manley: https://www.youtube.com/user/szyzyg
Ryan Wyatt at the Morrison Planetarium
Prof. Amy Mainzer
Alexandr Ivanov for the opening recording of the Chelyabinsk Meteor
Maps of the asteroid impacts —https: //ve42.co/Map
Universe Sandbox Timed Animation – http://universesandbox.com/
Opposition Effect – https://ve42.co/Belskaya2000
Belskaya, IN & Shevchenko, VG (2000). Opposition effect of asteroids. Icarus, 147 (1), 94-9; 105.
Potentially dangerous asteroids – https://ve42.co/Perna2013
Perna, D., Barucci, MA & Fulchignoni, M. (2013). The near-earth objects and their potential threat to our planet. The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review, 21 (1), 65.
Overview of Potentially Dangerous Asteroids – https://ve42.co/NEOSurvey
Population susceptibility – https://ve42.co/Rumpf2017
Hull, CM, Lewis, HG & Atkinson, PM (2017). Population vulnerability models for asteroid risk assessment. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 52 (6), 1082-1102.
Size distribution of NEOs – https://ve42.co/Trilling17
Trilling, DE, Valdes, F., Allen, L., James, D., Fuentes, C., Herrera, D., … & Rajagopal, J. (2017). The size distribution of near-earth objects larger than 10 m. The Astronomical Journal, 154 (4), 170.
2020 NEOWISE Data Release – https://ve42.co/NEOWISE
Report from the National Research Council – https://ve42.co/Defending
Board of Directors, SS & National Research Council. (2010). Defense of Planet Earth: Surveying Near-Earth Objects and Hazard Reduction Strategies. National Academies Press.
Tug – https://ve42.co/Schweickart03
Schweickart, RL, Lu, ET, Hut, P. & Chapman, CR (2003). The asteroid tractor. Scientific American, 289 (5), 54-61.
Gravity tractor 1 – https://ve42.co/Lu05
Lu, ET & Love, SG (2005). Gravitational tractor for towing asteroids. Nature, 438 (7065), 177-175; 178.
Laser ablation – https://ve42.co/Thiry14
N. Thiry & M. Vasile (2014). Recent advances in laser ablation modeling for asteroid deflection methods. SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, 922608-922608.
Yarakovsky Effect – https://ve42.co/Yara
DART Mission – https://ve42.co/DART
Nuclear 1 – https://ve42.co/Ahrens92
Ahrens, TJ & Harris, AW (1992). Distraction and fragmentation of near-Earth asteroids. Nature, 360 (6403), 429-300; 433.
Nuclear 2 – https://ve42.co/Bradley10
Bradley, PA, Plesko, CS, Clement, RR, Conlon, LM, Weber, RP, Guzik, JA, … & Hübner, WF (2010, January). Challenges in deflecting an asteroid or comet nucleus with a nuclear eruption. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Volume 1208, No. 1, pp. 430-437). American Institute of Physics.
Researched and written by Petr Lebedev, Jonny Hyman and Derek Muller
3D animations, VFX, SFX, audio mixing by Jonny Hyman
2D animation by Ivàn Tello
Intro animation by Nicolas Pratt
With the shooting of Raquel Nuno
Music from https://epidemicsound.com “Stellar Dance” “Orbit” “That Notebook” “What We Discovered” “Out of Poppies” “Handwriting”
Images and videos from Getty Images